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tv   Road to the White House Rewind  CSPAN  January 24, 2016 6:30pm-7:15pm EST

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taped by students at salem high school in new hampshire, the interviews played on cable television. it's the first time they been aired on national television. we start with ronald reagan, who went on to win the new hampshire primary. this is just under 15 minutes. election 80. leadership is a quality the american people are looking for in a president. not americans feel they're receiving strong leadership today. how would you define leadership? >> it's not as easy as it sounds. there have been great leaders throughout the world have -- who
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have been able to get followers, able men who led them in the wrong places and we usually think of leadership however. i think that one of the main essentials for leadership is communication. onfind that if we look back men, presidents here in the u.s. or men overseas, men like winston churchill, we find often we remember them years later and they are known better and history for things they said then for the actual deeds they might have performed. i think it is a case of being able to communicate to a people and persuade those people of the direction they want to go. meanseadership of course having a belief in basic principles, moral principles,
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things that are worthwhile and for the good of the people you're trying to lead. then persuading those people of the course they must follow in order to achieve this. who would you consider the three most effective leaders in history and why? >> and all of history. well, one had to be moses. the next had to be jesus of nazareth. i don't know whether i could come up with a third to mention in connection with those two. if you take the story of moses and his leadership, the children israel, and of course we have seen the story of a 33-year-old
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man who didn't own anything to speak of, had no extensive formal education in the way we , became at today preacher, probably never traveled in a circle more than 100 miles across, wasn't an ordained minister, yet in three years, established principles that have had more effect for 2000 years on mankind than all the rulers and teachers and admirals and the scholars who ever lived. whether i can come up with a third. if we're talking more modern-day leaders, we would get into the area of the men like churchill, washington and lincoln.
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franklin delano roosevelt. he was able to persuade the people of his country in a time of great distress and great depression to support him in the programs that he was taking forward and he was a great warrior. >> what i would like to do now is take this idea of leadership and have you applied it to your role as a leader when your governor and what kind of decisions you made in the past two indicate your effectiveness as a leader. >> i came into the governorship at quite a strange time in california. were arriving in the roaring 1960's. we were talking long, hot summers in our cities because of the racial violence but economically, the state of california was in the same condition the federal government
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was today. it was on the verge of bankruptcy. it had a bureaucracy that had grown 75% over the preceding eight years. we were the welfare capital of the world with a welfare load increasing at 40,000 people a month. as governor, i found the constitution prohibited deficit spending. i had to do everything i have been campaigning against because i came in and at the middle of the fiscal year.
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i had to ask the people of california for a tax increase. going in some of the most expensive accountant firms. they gave a reading on what the state financial condition was. i took them before the people on c-span.
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[explosions]. >> had back to the people in tax rebates $5.7 million.
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i had vetoed the spending measures introdeuced in had the legislature which was a democratic legislature. i had one of those vetoes overwritten.
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>> americans are faced with a constant reoccurrence of inflation and recession and rising fuel and food prices. rising unemployment. and of course we have the energy crisis. these are the kinds of problems that you would be facing on a daily basis if you were president. what do you intend to do about these problems. please be specific. >> well, i believe that most of those things, the government is responsible for. the government has caused recession, therefore, government can make it go away. government is causing the energy crisis; therefore, government can make it go away.
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we have had government for the last 40 years to try to protect it from ourselves. we can't afford that kind of care taker that can tell us what is good for us and our daily living and the control of our destiny and so forth. i would think that one of the first things that you must regain fiscal responsibility in government. that means reducing the size and ex travagance of government and in my view that means earnings the individual is taking as well as cutting taxes. when i say cut taxes, people automatically think cutting government revenue. that's not true.
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if we lower rates to the people, the resulting broadening of the base to the economy and the prosperity that results means everyone including the government getting more revenue. government has reduced the productivity of the american industrial machine even the individual. we have the highest percentage of industrial plants in any of the industrial nations. our rate of productivity is lower than all our competitors. if we can restore that incentive to both business and individual, then i believe there's a reduction in tax rates as i say. we will have gone a long way toward ending inflation if we
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can get government back to spending within its means. because government funds, much of that deficit is spending by increasing the quantity of money available comparably having an increase in the goods and services available for purchase. some people think that you have to choose between inflation and recession, that the only way you can end inflation is with the recession. i don't believe that at all and california's proposition 15 proved that. everyone said that when we made that big slash when the people in california rebelled against the property taxes that were making it impossible for people to stay in their own homes, it's about 15, 16 months now. there are 100,000 viewer public employees in california. but the private sector has increased to
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552,000 new jobs in this period. retail sales are up 14%. last year the state ended with a $3 billion surplus. so i truly believe that it is government intervening, government getting in the way, and by the same token with regard to energy, we had the cheapest and most abundant energy that any nation has ever had all the way from that first oil well that was drilled in pennsylvania in 1859.
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it must be evident if in nine years of government intervention you have the shortage and the high price after almost 120 years of no intervention, we had plenty, you better look at government instead of the industry as responsible for our problem today. >> mr. reagan, thank you for being with us. >> thank you.
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leadership is a quality the american people are demanding from their president. many americans feel they have not had strong effective leadership. how would you define leadership? >> leadership is having a conviction in the direction you want your country to go. a direction that can offer hope of freedom of countries around the world and hope for your own people. and it's also a concept of having people following, looking over your shoulder, and people being with you. it connotes to me strength, respect, and principle. >> who would you select as the three most effective leaders in history and why would you select these people? >> history has been pretty
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tough. in relatively recent history, i would say abraham lincoln. he set a direction for the country and that direction was holding the union together. didn't matter how he did it, it was the survival of the union. he set his sights on that, he did it, and in this the process, he demonstrated a great compassion for people. clearly i'd put a man like general eisenhower on there as well. he was a great hero, a quiet man in a sense, not given to macho or flamboyance. he generated confidence in the people he had. respect abroad, 2% inflation. he had leadership quality,
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character. character has to be part of leadership and he had character. and if i had a third, i would say winston churchhill, church hill during the most troubled days of the brits during world war ii, he had a different style than i but he could generate the best of people under siege. so they're three different types, really, but they're three i think really amazing individuals. >> think of those qualities that you've mentioned there. what decisions have you made in the past which reflect effectiveness and leadership? >> well, i've had tough leadership jobs. the two, i guess, that are the most difficult would be heading the republican party during the last days of the nixon
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presidency, the last two years of nixon's presidency. as history will show, this is the first time that the interest of the party did not always coincide with the interest of an incumbent president. that was one. i think another difficult job, probably the most difficult, was leading the central intelligence agency just at a moment when it was popular to tear it down and take failures from the past to show there was a certain immorality to the agency. both of them were challenging leadership assignments, and i hope i did them with the integrity of the institution i served intact when i left the job. that is a tough assessment to assess one's own leadership, but i believe i did that. i believe i had the respect of people with whom i agreed and
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disagreed. i hope in the last one, the cia job, i elevated the morale of the people. i did not try to elevate myself into the public limelight in either of these jobs. i think it's a style but i judge it can you lead with respect. can you accomplish your objective and then have the respect of people not only to like and agree with you but the respect of those that you lead. and i think i did that in those two assignments. >> what i would like to do now is move into the future somewhat. today america as the world is aware is confronted with crisis situation. americans are faced with the recurrence of inflation, recession, the rise in food and fuel prices. we have an unemployment problem as well as an energy crisis. these are the kinds of problems that you would face on a daily
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basis if you were elected president. how would you handle these problems and please be specific? >> it's interesting that mr. blo blo bloomenthal pointed out that no matter how well intentioned, president carter lacked the will to make the decisions necessary to break the back of inflation. first of all, i don't think the early 80s on questions like this are going to be easy. to say there's a quick and easy fix out there for anyone is wrong. i think you chart a course. for me the choice would be to emphasize the fundamentals of economics. specifically within a fundamental frame work of
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conservative economics, i would respect the growth of federal spending. i would compel the congress to do that. and if they didn't, i would veto legislation, hold the growth rate to 6.8%. i would find ways, and this is not easy, to cut through the excesses of regulation. i would get rid of many regul e regulators leaning on the far side of regulation. we've got to find the balance on regulation. a third thing i would do
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specifically is to have a tax cut, but not the popular one. not the one out there that says we're going to have a recession here so let's cut taxes on everyone. i would have a supply-side tax cut. it would be things like a family who found it extremely difficult to save for a house. those saving's accounts would be tax free. tax credits for certain kinds of business equipment. for a business that would locate where the unemployed are, give you special write offs in you offer hope to people by having a job in the private sector, not in the public sector. those specifics would result in
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a balanced budget in the year 1982. i've checked them with some of the best economists in this country. but you ask about leadership. the only way we're going to get there is to have leadership that would convince the congress that we've got to try these fundamentals. and if they won't try it, then you're going to have to veto. it's tough out there. everybody wants to do what's popular, and i think leadership means making the tough decisions, charting a course, not exposing yourself to ideas but charting a course and staying with it. taking the heat that's going to come from not always being popular out there. >> george bush, thank you for joining us.
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>> congressman john anderson, welcome to election '80. >> thank you very much, paul. >> leadership is a quality people have demanded from the president and many people feel that we're not getting the strong effective leadership necessary for today's issues. how would you define leadership? >> well, i don't believe that the american people want a leader in the sense of someone
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who by edict and command is going to tell them what to do in every single respect. to me, leadership means the ability to inspire the kind of confidence in the american
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people. trying to get a handle on inflation and create the image around the world that america is still a strong and powerful free country. >> pick out the three most effective leaders in history to you. >> well, you hit me right between 2 eyes with that one. i suppose it would take a lot of reflection. obviously i think first in the history of our own country, general washington at a time when one great historian said people should place their lives and honor into the sacredness of
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our country. clearly he was a leader. he was a leader in the military sense but he was also a man with a magnificent concept of freedom that enabled him to serve as the first president of this
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republic. sgl came along and said that we have nothing to fear than fear itself and then went on to recommend in a very dramatic way a series of policies that enabled us to overcome some of the effects of the recession. so obviously world history has other great leaders but those are great americans that i would admire. >> what decisions have you made in the past which best reflect as a leader and show those
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qualities. >> i cast the deciding vote on a housing bill in this country that would establish housing regardless of race or creed. my vote brought that bill out. it became the law of the land. a few days afterwards, the president of the united states who was then lyndon johnson shook my hand as i went through the receiving line in the white house and congratulated me for what i had done. it was a difficult vote. my party couldn't agree on equal housi
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opportunity in housing. but i think it demonstrated on my part to see an issue that was really of transcendant importance.
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problem, we cannot continue to pour out money in an ever flowing spring. we have to use the resources of the private sector. by statute,ctly, limits the growth of government so that it did not exceed the growth that takes place in our economy. i would even change the rules of the house and senate to provide that you would need at least a 60% vote that would approve an appropriations bill that would spend money beyond the level that we fixed early in the budget year as our spending ceiling. on energy, i think we have to have a lot more conservation. i have been inspired what the people of new england have done on their own, without government help, to conserve energy. a man told me not long ago that an oil bill had been reduced from $950 per year to $50 per year because he had installed a
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woodstove because he used some solar panels that can be used in the spring and fall and had done things that would enable him to be saving on fuel. in addition to that, i think the government has responsibility in the energy crisis. particularly for those of moderate to low incomes, i think we are to have a grant program that would help people meet the impact of these higher energy problems. going back to the general proposition, i think we have to , find more on ourselves new, resourceful, integrative -- resourceful, innovative ways to use our democratic, capitalist system, and depend less on the bureaucracy that, has over -- that has, over the years, tended to encroach on our incomes and soak up our tax dollars and also
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restrict some of the freedoms we want to enjoy. >> thank you for being with us. >> road to the white house rewind continues with howard baker of tennessee. the final interview in our look at the 1980 presidential campaign. this was taped by salem high school students in new hampshire and played on cable access in parts of new hampshire and massachusetts. this is the first time it has aired on national elevation. -- national television. howard baker finished third in the 1980 new hampshire republican primary, behind ronald reagan and george h.w. bush. he withdrew from the race a week later. mr. reagan would go on to win the nomination and defeat incumbent president jimmy carter in the general election. this is about 10 minutes. >> senator howard baker, welcome to election 1980. leadership is a quality that american people have demanded from the president. many americans feel we have not received strong, effective leadership from our president. how would you define leadership?
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mr. baker: i expect leadership a difficult quantity or quality to define in any case, but a presidential setting, the most difficult. let me give you examples of strong leaders, and then i will give you a more direct answer. franklin roosevelt, in my judgment, was a very strong political leader. the good states purposes and identify problems and did an extraordinary job of convincing the country through his fireside chats and the congress by , persuasion, to follow on. he quickly connected most of the new deal legislation in the 1930's. that was strong leadership in a time of social emergency. i think teddy roosevelt was a strong leader, a strong president. his "speak softly and carry a big stick" theorem is the most prominent legacy that he gave us, but roosevelt was strong in the international sense, primarily.
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that is he brought the united , states into the forefront as a world power. it is also interesting to note that although he was a tough, sometimes blustery man, that he led the country into a period of relative peace and stability. lincoln, of course, was a strong leader. by sheer force of personality and determination, he preserved the union when all of the odds must've been against it. that was a strong leadership. eisenhower, in my judgment, was an extraordinarily strong personality and president. sometimes, it takes strength, to maintain a tranquil administration to understand , things are going pretty well and that you don't have to change them for the sake of change. in each case, there is a different quality of leadership in the examples i have chosen. the one common denominator is that the presidency is a strong institution. the constitution adopted in
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philadelphia required its first registration, as they said, the president, to be a strong president. i would try to be a strong president. that is leadership. i do not believe that the presidency is too strong or too imperial. i believe men have abused the presidency, but i believe the institution has to be used as a forum to suggest to the problems and solutions of the country and leading nation in the direction it needs to go. >> to help us clarify your views on this, in dealing with strong leadership and effective leadership, what kinds of decisions have you made in your past as senator that would indicate to us that you have effective leadership? to begin with, i am proud to be the first republican ever elected to senate from tennessee. believe me, that is no small chore. there aren't that many republicans in my state. it means i had to try to lead the political apparatus in my state and appeal for broad-based
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support. following on after that, the ability to get elected to republican leader, the minority leader of the senate, has been a special privilege for me. in both of those periods, before i became republican leader and since i have become republican minority leader, there have been a range of issues on which i felt the need to try to assert leadership. one, when i came to the senate in the 1960's, the civil rights issues were still hot and topical. being a southern republican, it was sometimes difficult for me politically to take the lead in civil rights legislation, such as the voters right extension act, the fair housing act, and others. i think of that as leadership. i was swimming against the current, so to speak. i was a fragile political commodity. the first republican ever to come from tennessee. i think later on a number of other issues, particularly
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environmental legislation, i was the senior republican on the environment and public works subcommittee on the air and water pollution subcommittee. i can recall the great conflicts over the clean air act of 1970 the --clean air act of 1970 and the clean air amendments of 1970. i took a leadership role in convincing congress that the sorts of legislations were necessary. the panama canal, i still have scars and bruises over my head and shoulders over that, but i was convinced we needed a new treaty. if you didn't have a new treaty in panama, you would end up with is, acuba in panama, that hostile host country. that was an unpopular political decision, but it was a leadership role that i tried to play in convincing republicans that they should go along with that ratification. my opposition to the strategic arms limitation treaty is not based on my opposition to disarmament, which i support, but rather that this treaty is
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not a good enough treaty and and that the senate the role of advise and consent is important. that is not a popular view. especially with the press of this country. i think that as responsibility of leadership. these things occurred to me as i answer your question of some examples as a leadership role that i have tried to assert. let me give you one final one. after i was elected republican leader of the senate, three years ago, one of the first things i did was to ask the republican senators to try to agree on issue statements, on the major issues before the country. to see if we could get together. i appointed committees, i urged and counseled with republicans of different persuasions, and we came up with a series of positions that were important to the country and were almost unanimously adopted. we bridged the gap between the very conservative senators such as jesse helms from north
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carolina or orrin hatch from utah, jack javid from new york and mike from maryland. we brought them together in statements such as our position on national defense, energy, the economy, and so forth. i think of that is leadership as an example of leadership. >> dealing with that question, with the past and present leadership abilities on your part. with the next question, i would like to move into the future. as we all know, america today is confronted by serious crises situations that americans are faced with, recurrence of inflation and recession, the rise of unemployment, the rise in food prices, the rise in fuel prices, and naturally, and most important, the main culprit is the energy crisis itself. these are the kinds of problems that you would face on a daily basis if elected president of the united states. what would you intend to do
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about these problems, the situations, these issues, if elected, and please be specific? mr. baker: let me say first of all that in the energy field or inflation field, if someone says they have a simple solution for you, either that candidate is foolish or they are trying to fool you. it is a complex problem. the economy, inflation, i will respond to only it. we do have a rational and reasonable energy policy. i think we are on the right track with deregulation, decon trol, windfall profits tax. the safety net for the poor and elderly to provide against their freezing to death in the face of rising prices. new funds for research and development in synthetic fuels and fusion power and geothermal steam and other techniques. the first thing is, we have to get the energy problem under control. i think we are heading in the right direction. the second thing is to get the government's own fiscal accounts in order. right now, i think while the government is not the only cause
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of inflation, obviously, it is the biggest cause of inflation. i think president carter let the animal out of the cage. the animal of excessive government spending, which is stimulated an increase in the rate of inflation. when jerry ford was president in the final quarter of his administration, the final three months, inflation was running at less than 5% per year, now running at 13% per year. the second thing is to have a frugal and careful scrutiny of federal accounts to make sure that we hold the rate of increase of federal spending down to more modest levels. the third thing we have to do is try to increase productivity in this country. we ranked dead last in the 10 great industrial nations of the west in the rate of increase in productivity. what that means is we no longer compete with japan, germany, other countries. we are losing jobs. we are losing our competitive advantage.
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to do that, in turn, it requires a number of things. adjustment of tax code, re-instill the incentive to save for the average citizen, invest, for installing new plant equipment, to create new jobs. you have to reduce the burden of paperwork, regulation. i would like to see us make it -- make a distinction between reporting requirements to the agencies of federal government for small business versus big business. small business is being suffocated by reporting requirements. all of these things are component parts of a complex question that is how he would control inflation, how do you reduce the cost of living or retard the cost of living in the nation? i will not sit here and say as president there is a magic wand that can be waived. it will take all of these things, plus much more, to get our house back in order. >> senator howard baker, thank you for being with us for election 1980. >> c-span takes you on the road to the white house.
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best access to the candidates, at town hall meetings, speeches, rallies, and meet and greets. we are taking your comments on twitter, facebook, and by phone . and as always, every campaign event we cover is available on our website, c-span.org. >> up next, author and new york state supreme court judge diane diesel discusses the life of supreme court activist dorothy ferebee. ferebee fossil women's health rights, racially quality, and health care improvements for african-americans. the african-american historical society hosted this 45 minutes event. >> thank you all for joining us this evening. my name is gavin. i work for the

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